4.1 Semantic Linking | 4.2 Equivalency | 4.3 Hierarchy | 4.4 Associative
This relationship covers associations between terms that are neither equivalent nor hierarchical, yet the terms are semantically or conceptually associated to such an extent that the link between them should be made explicit in the controlled vocabulary, on the grounds that it may suggest additional terms for use in indexing or retrieval. The relationship is symmetrical, and is generally indicated by the abbreviation RT (related term).
Example 114: Associative relationship notation (RT)
The associative relationship is the most difficult one to define, yet it is important to make explicit the nature of the relationship between terms linked in this way and to avoid subjective judgments as much as possible; otherwise, RT references could be established inconsistently. As a general guideline, whenever one term is used, the other should always be implied within the common frames of reference shared by the users of the controlled vocabulary. Moreover, one of the terms is often a necessary component in any explanation or definition of the other; the term cells, for example, forms a necessary part of the definition of cytology.
Either of the following types of terms can be linked by the associative relationship:
a) those belonging to the same hierarchy
b) those belonging to different hierarchies
Relationships are needed for terms belonging to the same hierarchy in various special situations, primarily to guide the user in locating the desired term.
184.108.40.206 Relationships Between Overlapping Sibling Terms
Related Term (RT) references are required for sibling terms with overlapping meanings, such as ships and boats, where each of the terms can be precisely defined (so they do not form an equivalence set), yet they are sometimes used loosely and almost interchangeably. The user interested in one should be reminded of the other.
In the systematic section of a controlled vocabulary containing organized hierarchies (see 5.3.4), the method of display will bring the Related Term references together. The relationship should be indicated explicitly, however, in an alphabetical listing and in the alphabetic section of a hierarchical controlled vocabulary.
Example 115: Overlapping sibling terms hierarchical display
Example 116: Overlapping sibling terms alphabetical display
220.127.116.11 Relationships Between Mutually Exclusive Sibling Terms
It is not necessary to interrelate all sibling terms. For example, there is no need to associate terms such as roses and daffodils, which share the broader term flowers, because the meaning of the terms does not overlap, i.e., they are mutually exclusive.
It is possible to establish many grounds for associating terms belonging to different hierarchies. Related Term references are often made between etymologically related terms, i.e., that contain the same root, but which do not represent the same kind of thing. The following are some representative examples of typical relational situations. For guidance on coding the precise nature of a relationship, see Z39.19 section 8.4.4. The following examples illustrate the types of associative relationships listed in Table 1 of 4.1.
Example 119: Process / Agent associative relationships
RT temperature control
Example 120: Process / Counteragent associative relationships
RT flame retardant
RT anti-inflammatory agents
Example 121: Action / Property associative relationships
RT environmental cleanup
RT public opinion
Example 122: Action / Product associative relationships
Example 123:Action / Target associative relationships
Example 124: Cause / Effect associative relationships
Example 125: Concept or Object / Property associative relationships
RT surface tension
Example 126: Concept or Object / Origins associative relationships
RT Caspian Sea
RT beluga caviar
RT Greek civilization
RT Socratic method
Example 127: Concept or Object / Units or Mechanisms of Measurement associative relationships
RT electric current
Example 128: Raw Material / Product associative relationship
Example 129: Discipline or Field / Object or Practitioner associative relationships
RT nervous system
In order to bring closely related concepts together in the alphabetical array under a given term, related terms may be divided into categories that do not form part of a logical hierarchy. These related terms should then be identified by a node label.
Example 132: Node labels for related terms
In this example, [operations] functions as a node label that describes a category or facet to which the related terms belong. Node labels used with narrower terms generally describe a characteristic or sub-division.
In certain controlled vocabularies, it may be considered desirable to refine Related Term references in order to make the nature of the relationships explicit.
Codes for such relationship indicators and their reciprocals may be developed locally. These local codes should be clearly explained and illustrated in the introduction or documentation of the published or machine-readable controlled vocabulary.
| Table of Contents |
| 1. Why Vocabulary Control | 2. Principles | 3. Structures | 4. Semantic Relationships |
| 5. Displays | 6. When to use | 7. Examples of use | 8. About Z39.19 |
©NISO, 2005 http://www.niso.org/
Source: Based on ANSI/NISO Z39.19-2005 ISBN: 1-880124-65-3
Guidelines for the Construction, Format, and Management of Monolingual Controlled Vocabularies